SEDER OLAM - Revisited

סדר עולם - חדש



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Index of names


Generations  1-14
(3760 - 2080 BCE)

Generations 15-21
(2080 - 1240 BCE)

Generations 22-28
(1240 - 400 BCE)

Generations 29-35
(400 BCE - 440 CE)

Generations 36-42
(440 - 1280 CE)

Generations 43-49
(1280 - 2120 CE)

Generation 50

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Hebrew years 480 to 600 (3280-3160 BCE)

Early Dynasties

In this period, the Sumerian cities continued to be built across Mesopotamia and their rulers would eventually be at war one against another for regional domination. Idolatry was spreading fast, as a mean to subjugate people to the power of these rulers. 

Stele of Uruk
Stele of Uruk, ca. 3000 BCE, Bagdad Museum 
(source: 2DCODE)

In Ancient Egypt, civilization started to form and the Early Dynastic Period dates around 3200-3100 BC. The first Pharaoh to have unified Lower and Upper Egypt under a single rule is attested to be Pharaoh Narmer, founder of the First Dynasty. His name has been found in many clay artifacts in Egypt but also in Southern Canaan, such as in the city of Tel Arad which had established trade routes between Egypt and the rest of the antique world. In fact, it is probable that Narmer had subjugated the Canaanite city of Tel Arad, without destroying it, to better establish trade routes for Egypt. This can be assumed from the Narmer palette, which reverse side shows a walled city with towers being conquered by a bull (Narmer). The Canaanite city of Tel Arad was exactly designed with such walls and towers as we can see from an aerial photo of the excavations site.

Narmer Palette
Narmer Palette (Museum of Cairo), showing a round walled city with watch towers (bottom right of the picture of the right side)

The Canaanite city of Tel Arad
The Canaanite city of Tel Arad with its round walls and watch towers, as depicted in Narmer Palette

Copyright Albert Benhamou 2013 - All rights reserved.